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Data types

To enable product tracing and data sharing, IBM Food Trust™ supports multiple data types based on GS1 standards. Each data type is encoded in an XML message, in a unique format, derived from GS1 Business Message Standards and GS1 XML 3 Standards.

Each message uploaded to IBM Food Trust must be in the supported XML format for its data type. The data types shown in Table 1 below are implemented by IBM Food Trust:

Table 1. IBM Food Trust data types

Data type Description Standard
Master data Product (item), facility (location), and lot (batch) information GS1 GDSN Standard
Business transactions Purchase Order (PO), Despatch Advice (DA/ASN), and Receive Advice documents GS1 XML Standard
EPCIS events Product: Observation, Transformation, Commission, Decommission, Aggregation, and Disaggregation events. GS1 EPCIS Standard
Payload data Generic string-encoded payloads IBM Food Trust
Cryptographic signing Encoded public signing keys IBM Food Trust

The IBM Food Trust data types, and their associated message types, are explained in the following sections.

Master Data

Master Data describes organization facility locations (GLNs or IBM Food Trust facility IDs) and trade items (GTINs or IBM Food Trust product IDs), and are expected to be largely static. Three types of Master Data are supported by IBM Food Trust (Figure 1):

Figure 1. Master data types
masterdata.png

Master data types, their corresponding message types, and Samples are shown in Table 2 below:

Table 2. Master data message types

Master data type Message type Sample XML message
Master facility data Basic facility registration MasterData_Facility_Annotated
Master item data Item data notification MasterData_Item_Annotated
Instance/Lot Master data (ILMD) Object Add or Transformation EPCIS_Commission / EPCIS_Transformation

Attention: IBM Food Trust Master data message types are based on the GS1 GDSN Standard (download this standard .zip file and refer to the /Schemas/gs1/gdsn/ files).

Master facility data

The Master facility data XML message type is derived from the GGS1 Basic Party Registration XML message type and describes facility information in IBM Food Trust.

Master facility data consists of the following data points:

  • Facility GLN (Global Location Number) or IBM Food Trust facility ID
  • Facility address (physical)
  • Facility type (e.g. farm, warehouse)

Master Item Data

The Master Item Data XML message type is derived from the GS1 Item Data Notification XML message type, and is used for registering trade items (products) in IBM Food Trust.

Master Item Data is class-level master data corresponding to a GTIN (Global Trade Item Number) or IBM Food Trust product ID, is typically uploaded by the creator of the trade item in IBM Food Trust, and consists of the following data points:

  • Text description
  • GTIN (or IBM Food Trust product ID)
  • SKU (Stock Keeping Unit)

Instance/Lot Master Data (ILMD)

Unlike Master facility data and Master Item Data, Instance/Lot Master Data (ILMD) has no message type that is specific to IBM Food Trust. For ILMD, IBM Food Trust uses EPCIS Commission and EPCIS Transformation events (i.e. events that lead to the creation of a trade item or product), with optional ILMD fields.

Instance/Lot Master Data (ILMD) is Master Data corresponding to a specific item lot or item instance, and includes the following data:

  • Item expiration (best by) date
  • Item weight
  • Item harvest date

When a specific item lot is defined on the network, an LGTIN (GTIN with a preceding Lot/Batch number) is used in ILMD. When a specific item instance is defined, an SGTIN (Serialized GTIN) is used.

Business transactions

The three types of business transactions supported by IBM Food Trust (Figure 2) are Purchase Orders, Despatch Advice (Advance Shipping Notice) and Receive Advice:

Figure 2. Business transaction types
businesstransactions.png

Business transaction data types, their corresponding message types, and Samples are shown below in Table 2:

Table 2. Business transaction message types

Business transaction data type Message type Sample XML message
Purchase Order Order PurchaseOrder_Annotated
Despatch Advice (Advanced Shipping Notice; ASN) Despatch Advice DespatchAdvice_Annotated
Receive Advice Receive Advice ReceiveAdvice_Annotated

Attention: IBM Food Trust Business transaction message types are based on the GS1 XML standard.

Purchase Order (PO)

The Purchase Order (PO) XML message type corresponds to the GS1 Order XML message type, and describes a specific trade item transaction in IBM Food Trust.

Purchase Order data is generally uploaded by the buyer of the food product, and includes the following data points:

  • Buyer GLN (or IBM Food Trust facility ID)
  • Receiving facility GLN (or IBM Food Trust facility ID)
  • Trade item GTINs (or IBM Food Trust product IDs) and quantities

Despatch Advice (DA)

The Despatch Advice (DA) XML message type corresponds to the GS1 Despatch Advice XML message type (aka Advance Shipping Notice or ASN), and describes the trade items being sent (one Purchase Order per line).

Despatch Advice data is generally uploaded by the shipper of the food product, and includes the following data points:

  • Shipper GLN
  • Receiver GLN
  • Shipping Facility GLN
  • Receiving facility GLN
  • Trade Item GTINs and quantities
  • Purchase Order identifiers

Note: IBM Food Trust identifiers are also supported in place of GLNs and GTINs.

Receive Advice (RA)

The Receive Advice (RA) XML message type corresponds to the GS1 Receiving Advice XML message type, and describes the trade items received and their condition.

Receive Advice Data is generally uploaded by the receiver of the food product, and includes the following data points:

  • Shipper GLN
  • Receiver GLN
  • Shipping facility GLN
  • Receiving facility GLN
  • Trade Item GTINs and quantities
  • Condition of received trade items
  • Purchase Order identifiers
  • Despatch Advice identifiers

Note: IBM Food Trust identifiers are also supported in place of GLNs and GTINs.

EPCIS Events

Electronic Product Code Information Service (EPCIS) Events correspond to the GS1 EPCIS XML message type, and describe trade item observations, transformations, and creation and removal, for both individual and aggregated objects.

The GS1 EPCIS Standard is used to codify the event data that member Organizations upload to IBM Food Trust. An EPCIS event specifies the What, Where, When, and Why of an event, for one or more trade items (products). Six EPCIS event types are supported by IBM Food Trust, as shown below in Figure 3:

Figure 3. EPCIS Event Types
epcisevents.png

Event Names, their corresponding EPCIS Event Types, Event Actions, and Samples are shown below in Table 3:

Table 3. EPCIS Event message types

Event Name EPCIS Event Type Event Action Sample XML Message
Commission Object ADD EPCIS_Commission
Decommission Object DELETE EPCIS_Decommission
Observation Object OBSERVE EPCIS_Observation
Transformation Transformation Transformation EPCIS_Transformation
Aggregation Aggregation ADD EPCIS_Aggregation
Disaggregation Aggregation DELETE EPCIS_Disaggregation

Note: IBM Food Trust EPCIS Event Message formats are based on the GS1 EPCIS Standard.

Commission Events

Commission Events data describe the creation of objects (commissioning of a new object EPC), such as a new trade item lot from a harvest event, or a new pallet Serial Shipping Container Code (SSCC).

Each Commission Event involves one of the following data points:

Commission Events can also contain Instance/Lot Master Data (ILMD).

Decommission Events

Decommission Event data describe the deletion of trade items from the network (removal of an object EPC).

Each Decommission Event involves one of the following data points:

  • Serial Shipping Container Code (SSCC)
  • List of class-level trade items (LGTINs) or instance-level trade items (SGTINs) (or both).

Observation Events

Observation Event data describe trade item observations, such as a product scan at a retailer.

In general, observation events involve one of the following data points, observed at a specific location at a specific time in the course of a business process:

  • Serial Shipping Container Code (SSCC)
  • List of class-level trade items (LGTINs) or instance-level trade items (SGTINs) (or both).

Transformation Events

Transformation Event data describe an irreversible combination of input objects (food products or ingredients) into output objects (food products):

Each Transformation Event involves both of the following data points:

  • List of class-level input items (LGTINs) or instance-level input items (SGTINs) (or both)
  • List of class-level output items (LGTINs) or instance-level output items (SGTINs) (or both).

Transformation Events can also contain Instance/Lot Master Data (ILMD).

Aggregation Events

Aggregation Event data describe a reversible aggregation of input objects into output objects, such as boxes of produce into pallets of produce. Outbound shipping from a supplier to a retailer distribution center must be an aggregation event.

Each Aggregation Event involves both of the following data points:

  • Single parent item (represented, for example, by an SSCC)
  • List of class-level child items (LGTINs) or instance-level child items (SGTINs) (or both).

Disaggregation Events

Disaggregation Event data describe a disaggregation of objects from an aggregation event, such as pallets of produce into boxes of produce.

Each Disaggregation Event involves both of the following data points:

  • Single parent item (represented by an SSCC, e.g.)
  • List of class-level child items (LGTINs) or instance-level child items (SGTINs) (or both).

Payloads

You can submit generic string-encoded payloads to IBM Food Trust. Refer to payload data and the annotated sample of an XML payload.

Cryptographic signing

You can submit encoded public signing keys to IBM Food Trust in XML format. Refer to Cryptographic signatures and annotated sample of a public signing key.